Our Board Of Directors

Our Board of Directors

IFEM BOARD 2020-2022

Up until 2011, the IFEM Board was made up of a representative from each member country. An Executive of six office-bearers was created in 2006 to improve responsiveness. With the growth in membership to over 64 member organisations, in 2012 it was agreed that a new Board of 12 members would be established. This Board comprises 6 office-bearers, plus representatives from 6 geographic regions – Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America and Central and South America. The current Board also includes a liaison and oversight officer.


Professor Sally McCarthy | President
Australasian College for Emergency Medicine

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Professor Sally McCarthy MBBS FACEM MBA FIFEM is an emergency physician at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Sydney, and Director ED South East Regional Hospital Bega, NSW. Having been Director ED at tertiary and smaller hospitals, in 2011 she established the Emergency Care Institute at the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation. This body linked all 186 EDs, stakeholders and consumers in NSW in an emergency care network for the first time, providing leadership and advocacy, an open access website with peer reviewed point of care clinical tools used in EDs worldwide, education, research and innovation, and substantially reduced serious incidents in NSW ED.

She is a past president of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, and Chairs the ACEM National Program under which education, specialist supervision and support for ACEM certificate and diploma training is undertaken in more than 400 regional, rural and remote EDs. In 2017, she was awarded the ACEM Medal, the College’s highest honour. Other ACEM activities include examiner, elected member of the Council of Advocacy, Practice and Partnerships and Chair of the Standards and Endorsements Committee; and member of other ACEM committees and working groups.

She has a track record over many years of leadership and advocacy to improve emergency and health care, with roles including Australian Prime Minister’s Crystal Methamphetamine (Ice) Taskforce member, Chair of the Emergency Medicine Foundation a national research funder, Chair of the Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Clinical Committee for the MBS review Taskforce, member of the NSW Mental Health Priority Task Force, Suicide Australia reference group member, and many others. She has had a long commitment to IFEM as Board member, past Chair Specialty Implementation Committee and member of other committees, working groups and taskforces; and commitment to international EM, visiting hospitals in many nations and delivering education with local colleagues, working in SE Asia, and fostering support for the advancement of EM. She has a significant research publication and funding record, and is a passionate advocate for equity in all aspects of emergency care.

Professor Jim Ducharme | Immed Past President
Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians

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Dr Ducharme has been involved with IFEM from its inception, having been of the 4 original Founding Member presidents who signed the IFEM charter. he has taken on many roles over the years, including drafting the original Bylaws as Chair of the Governance Committee. During the 11 years as editor-in-chief of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, he arranged for original IFEM position papers and guidelines to be peer reviewed and published through CJEM. Dr Ducharme initially became a professor of Emergency Medicine at Dalhousie University, and after moving 13 years ago to the Toronto area, has become a Clinical Professor of Medicine at McMaster University, and an Adjunct Professor of Family Medicine at Queen’s University. He has served as an external examiner for the EM specialty exams at the University of West Indies. His primary academic interest has been pain management as well as international emergency medicine. Dr Ducharme has also worked in the corporate world, having been the Senior Vice President and CMO for 2 different health care companies, including McKesson Canada, where he was the Chief Medical Officer. He currently serves IFEM as its President. He works full time clinically in the emergency department of Humber River Hospital in Toronto.

Dr Ffion Davies | President-Elect
Royal College of Emergency Medicine

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Dr Ffion Davies is a Consultant Emergency Physician at the University Hospitals of Leicester, UK, and Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Leicester. She is the ED postgraduate Education Lead in a department which sees 600 patients per day, with a large residency program (general and paediatric EM). She has a passion for inter-professional education in Emergency Medicine and has sub-specialist training in Paediatric Emergency Medicine.

She founded and Chaired the IFEM Paediatric EM Special Interest Group, which published the first edition of Standards of Care for Children in Emergency Departments, now in its 3rd edition (English & Spanish). She has served as Chair of the Clinical Practice Committee 2018-2020, working with nine IFEM Special Interest Groups. She is a member of the Global Emergency Medicine Committee, Royal College of Emergency Medicine (UK).

Her career has been dedicated to improving care in emergency departments through education, in particular the care of children. This has involved developing the sub-speciality of Paediatric Emergency Medicine within the UK, expanding training programmes for PEM, representing PEM within the UK Royal College of Emergency Medicine and acting as advisor on various government or other national strategies. She is the lead clinician for The Children’s Air Ambulance charity, a national PICU/NICU helicopter retrieval and ECMO service.

Her contributions to Medical Education include the eLearning website www.spottingthesickchild.com, a textbook titled Emergency Care of Minor Trauma in Children, and the FOAMEd site EM3. Her main area of interest is translational in-situ simulation. She is an examiner for the FRCEM. She has published 45 papers in peer-reviewed journals.

Her non-medical passions are for nature conservation, music and rugby.



Professor Terrence Mulligan | Vice-President
American College of Emergency Physicians

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Prof Mulligan received his medical degree in 1997 from A.T. Still University in Missouri. He completed a residency in Emergency Medicine in 2001 and a second residency in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine in 2002 in Bronx, New York.  He then completed a Fellowship in International Emergency Medicine at George Washington University in 2003, and completed a Masters in Public Health in Epidemiology and Biostatistics at George Washington University in 2003. In 2006, he completed a one-year Health Policy Fellowship from American Osteopathic Association, and in 2008, he completed a Fellowship in EM Administration and Management.  He has completed graduate work at Erasmus University in the Netherlands in Health Economics, Policy and Law. He is double-board certified in Emergency Medicine and in Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine / Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, and has completed three subspecialty Fellowships: in International Emergency Medicine, in Health Policy, in EM Administration and Management, and in Sports and Exercise Medicine.

Prof Mulligan is a Clinical Professor in Emergency Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, where he is the Director of the International Emergency Medicine (IEM) program and the IEM Fellowship.   He is also an Affiliate Faculty of the University of Maryland Institute for Global Health. From 2006-2010, Dr Mulligan was living and working in The Netherlands directing two emergency departments and EM residencies at Erasmus University Medical Center in Rotterdam, and at UMC Utrecht, two of the first EM programs in that country, and contributed heavily to EM development in Netherlands.  During that time, he completed graduate work in a Master of Science program in Health Economics, Policy and Law at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, Netherlands.  Dr Mulligan is also an Extraordinary Senior Lecturer / Visiting Assistant Professor at Stellenbosch University in Cape Town, South Africa, a Visiting Professor at Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, Hunan Normal University, in Changsha, China, and a Visiting Professor at Apollo GlenEagles Hospital in Kolkata, India.

He is a Board member of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM), and the Secretary for the International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM). He has been active with IFEM since 2005.  He is also the founder and Treasurer of the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Foundation, and the founder and President / CEO of the IFEM Institute. He is a co-founder and Vice President of the American Academy of EM for India (AAEMI).  He is the past-chair of the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Section for International Emergency Medicine, the past chair of the American Academy of EM (AAEM) Committee for International Medicine, a past chair of the International EM Committee for the American College of Osteopathic Emergency Medicine (ACOEP), and the co-founder of the International EM Fellowship Consortium (//www.iemfellowships.com/).  He is co-founder and was an Associate Editor of the peer-reviewed journal, The African Journal of Emergency Medicine, and is an executive editor of Emergency Physicians International magazine (www.epijournal.com). He is a co-author of the IFEM Model Curriculum for Medical Student Education in EM, a co-author of the IFEM Model Curriculum for EM Specialists, and is the main author of the IFEM Model Curriculum for CME/CPD, and co-author of many other peer-reviewed publications for the IFEM.

Over the last twenty years, Prof Mulligan has initiated and participated in emergency medicine and acute care system development programs in over fifty countries.  He has established and assisted in establishing residencies in Emergency Medicine, national and international EM societies, Fellowships in EM and EM subspecialties, schools for emergency nursing, training schools for paramedics, relief agencies for underserved areas, disaster medicine and disaster preparation, hospital disaster preparedness and hospital trauma system development all around the world. He has delivered over 850 lectures, symposia and educational programs nationally and internationally for over thirty local, national and international EM organizations.  In 2010, he was honored with the special award, “The Order of the IFEM” for “extensive and continuous commitment to the specialty of Emergency Medicine in his own country and for significant contributions to supporting the development and advancement of the International Federation for Emergency Medicine.”   In June 2012, he was nominated for the award, “Best Personal Contribution to Emergency Medicine in the Netherlands” by the Dutch Society for Emergency Physicians.  In October 2012, he received the highest award from the ACEP International EM Section for “Individual Achievement in International Emergency Medicine Development”.  Dr Mulligan was awarded the “International Emergency Medicine Leadership Award” by the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM) in 2015.  He received an award for “Individual Achievement in International Emergency Medicine” by the ACEP Ambassador Committee in 2017.  In 2017, he was also named an “Honorary Fellow of the Polish Society of Emergency Medicine”. In 2018, Dr Mulligan received a personal citation from the Minister of Health of Lithuania for “Leadership in Emergency Medicine Development” and for his contribution to Lithuanian Emergency Medicine systems development.  He recently was awarded for his contributions to the Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine.  In November 2018, he received the ACEP President’s Award for Excellence in EM, and the AAEM President’s Award as well. In December 2018, Dr Mulligan was named a Fellow of the Faculty of Sports and Exercise Medicine, of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland and the Royal College of Physicians in Ireland.

Dr T.S Srinath Kumar | Treasurer
Society of Emergency Medicine India

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Dr Srinath Kumar T S is an Sr. Consultant, Head & Group Coordinator of Narayana Hrudayalaya Ltd., which has a chain of Hospitals across India and Cayman Islands with 30 Hospitals. With more than 20 years of experience in Emergency Medicine has a passion to improve care of Emergency Medicine across India. With his passion for Academics along with other SEMI board Members he could link more than 300 Hospitals including Medical Colleges across India to encourage Emergency Medicine by which the Emergency Care can been improved.

He was one of the first Special Advisory Board Members for National Board of Examinations – DNB Emergency Medicine and established the Curriculum for DNB. He was been awarded the highest honour “Distinguished Postgraduate Teacher of Emergency Medicine”. Currently he holds – National Academic Coordinator for all DNB specialities with ANBAI which is an Association of NBE accredited Hospitals in India

He was the President of SEMI 2014 -16 and currently the Academic Chair, was in various Positions of SEMI since 2010.

In IFEM he was in various committees – Disaster, Newer Advances (Vice Chair), Quality and GEMSIG.

He was involved in setting up of Emergency Departments to start DNB Emergency Medicine and training of Doctors in  Public sector hospitals which caters in Taluks and villages in Karnataka & Tamilnadu. Train the Doctors from Madhya Pradesh. He was been involved in reviewing Trauma & Emergency management in Karnataka and Tamilnadu states.

He is in the Asian Society for Emergency Medicine – Board, 2015 as Asst. Treasurer and Asst. Secretary since 2017 till date and was a Scientific Chair for ACEM 2019.

He was an Examiner for MD and for DNB, SEMI certification programs, International Examiner – MRCEM, George Washington and Upstate and has many articles published.

His passion is to create Emergency Physicians to serve 1.3 billion people in India, in oversees he works closely with the Asian Countries and Turkey. Our aim is “Each one, teach one to save more lives”.

Dr Cherri Hobgood | Secretary
Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

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Dr Cherri Hobgood is the Rolly McGrath Distinguished Professor and Chair of Emergency Medicine at Indiana University School of Medicine.  She received her medical degree from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in 1989 and her clinical training in the UNC Emergency Medicine residency program. At the completion of her emergency medicine training, Dr Hobgood joined the faculty of UNC Department of Emergency Medicine under the leadership of Dr Judith Tintinalli. Throughout her career she has focused her research and educational efforts on designing effective, safe, patient-centered communication in the emergency department. Her educational content and interventions on communication topics such as death notification have been widely incorporated into interprofessional curricula throughout the world.  She is the author of more than 100 peer reviewed contributions to the medical literature which have been published in a variety of books and academic journals.

As a member of the UNC School of Medicine faculty Dr Hobgood served in a variety of leadership roles including Director of the Office of Educational Development, Director of the UNC Clinical Skills Center, Associate Dean for Curriculum and Educational Development for the School of Medicine, and Vice Chair of Emergency Medicine.

In her current role as chair of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Indiana University, the largest emergency medicine clinical education program in the nation, Dr Hobgood directs more than 150 faculty and the clinical operations of ten emergency departments providing care to half-million Hoosiers annually. Each year Indiana University emergency medicine faculty teach more than 400 medical students and matriculate 23 residents and 15 fellows into its two residency training programs and seven post-graduate fellowship programs. Dr Hobgood is a member of the Governance committee of the Eskenazi Health Foundation, Chair of the IUSM Council of Clinical Chairs, and Chair of the Board of Directors of Indiana University Health Physicians, a multi-specialty physician practice plan representing more than 1800 physicians.

Within organized medicine Dr Hobgood has served terms as Chair of the Council of Residency Directors Best Practice Task Force, President of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, chair of the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine Foundation Board and chair of the Governance Committee for the International Federation for Emergency Medicine.  She was the first woman elected to Chair the Board of the American College of Emergency Physicians.

She has been recognized with multiple awards including the Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Award, the National Emergency Medicine Faculty Teaching Award, American Medical Association-Women Physician’s Council Mentor Recognition Award, Indiana University-Purdue University-Indianapolis Women’s Leadership Award and the American College of Emergency Physicians Award for Outstanding Contribution in Education.  She is an elected member of AOA and the Arnold Gold Humanism in Medicine Honor Society and in 2012 she was inducted as a Fellow of the International Federation for Emergency Medicine.

Without reservation, Dr Hobgood cites her most important role is as the mother of her two sons, Collin Campbell and Walter Winslow.

Dr Janis Tupesis | Liaison and Oversight Officer
American College of Emergency Physicians

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Dr Tupesis completed his residency training at the University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics where he served as the Associate Residency Program Director, a position he held until joining the Emergency Medicine faculty at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health.

He served as the Department of Emergency Medicine’s Residency Program Director until 2014, overseeing the program’s initial accreditation and expansion to its current form. At the same, he served as the chairperson of UW Health’s Graduate Medical Education Global Health Committee and one of the Associate Directors of the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Global Health Institute, positions he continues to hold today.

He is involved in projects involving establishing graduate medical education programs in resource limited settings in both Liberia, Ethiopia and South Africa – partnering with multiple other academic institutions. In 2018, he begun work with the World Bank and the Association of African Universities on the Africa Centers of Excellence for Development (ACE Impact) Project, which aims to improve the quality, quantity and development impact of postgraduate education in selected universities through regional specialization and collaboration.

Since 2015, he has been working as a volunteer technical consultant at the Emergency, Trauma and Acute Care Programme within the Department for Management of Noncommunicable Diseases, Disability, Violence and Injury Prevention at the World Health Organization. He continues to work as one of the founding faculty members of the newly formed Academic Consortium for Emergency Systems (ACES), a consortium of academic global health programs to support the work of aforementioned WHO Programme.

He serves on multiple international global health education committees, including the International Federation of Emergency Medicine (IFEM), African Federation of Emergency Medicine (AFEM), American College of Emergency Medicine (ACEP) and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine – Global Emergency Medicine Academy (GEMA). In 2018, he was awarded the Presidential Lifetime Achievement Award by GEMA for his work on emergency care health/education systems development.



Dr Mulinda Nyirenda
African Federation for Emergency Medicine

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Dr Nyirenda is a senior specialist in Emergency Medicine and Internal medicine at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi.  She was the founding head of the first modernized adult emergency department in Malawi – hub of emergency medicine activities in the country. She holds a senior lecturer post in the school of Medicine at Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (KUHeS).

As a pioneer educator and trainer, her key contributions to academic emergency medicine have been collaborations that have led to among others; the development of postgraduate specialty training in Emergency Medicine at the University of Malawi College of Medicine in 2012, emergency medicine modules within other specialty training programs and the undergraduate curriculum.  She also serves on the Medical Education and Training Committee (COMETO) – providing support and training to faculty.

She organizes and conducts continual professional development activities related to acute and trauma care for clinicians and nurses in Malawi. She coordinates the Primary Trauma Care Course faculty in Malawi and is a national trainer of the WHO Basic Emergency Care Course (BEC). She provided leadership and mentorship to the national COVID-19 clinical case management course faculty that taught and mentored health care workers in Malawi Health system in 2020.

Under the Malawian Ministry of Health, her key contributions to emergency care system development in Malawi have been provision of leadership to the Pre Hospital Care planning Committee from 2012 to 2015 that was instrumental in facilitating out-of-hospital emergency care provision Bye-Laws and facilitated the creation of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) sponsored by the World Bank project to respond to Road Traffic Accidents in Malawi. She currently serves on the emergency and critical care working group and COVID19 clinical case management and advisory experts’ committees.

Her clinical research portfolio includes multi-national HIV clinical trials since 2004 as well as other researching acute care, infectious diseases, medical education, medical Informatics and technology, and health care systems strengthening. She was part of the Fogarty Emergency Care Systems Working Group for the Collaborative for Enhancing Emergency Care Research in Low and Middle Income Countries (CLEER).

On the global health arena, she is a mentor in the Global Emergency Medicine Student Leadership Program as an ACEP international section member and is part of the international faculty for the certificate in emergency medicine program (CPEM) -collaborative education program between Harvard University and the Indus Hospital in Pakistan. She has also contributed to the Global Emergency Care Skills (GECS) initiative with Irish emergency medicine doctors to provide high quality emergency care training to healthcare professionals in countries with developing emergency medicine healthcare systems.  She is a section editor and author on the AFEM Handbook of Acute and Emergency Medicine versions 1 and 2.  She is an associate editor of the African Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Dr Nyirenda is one of the few women leaders in Emergency Medicine in Africa. She serves on the board of African Federation of Emergency Medicine as a Southern African Region representative. She has been involved with the International Federation of Emergency Medicine since 2016 as a member of Gender Specific Issues Special Interest Group. She also serves on the Governance committee and is now the African Representative on the IFEM Board.


Dr Ng Chip-Jin
Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine

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Dr Ng is the Chair of Emergency Department and serves as the President of Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine Board.  He  has a Master’s degree in Health Administration. Dr Ng served as the Chair of the Taiwan Triage and Acuity Scale National Working Group, 2006-2014. Dr. Ng has developed Taiwan Triage and Acuity scale and electronic clinical decision support tools for triage (eTTAS). In addition, he led the IT team to build an ED Information System since 2008 and created a paper free environment. He has been serially funded by Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare. His primary research interests include triage, development, implementation, dissemination and evaluation of evidence-based electronic clinical decision electronic decision support tools.


Dr Simon Judkins
Australasian College for Emergency Medicine

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Central and South America

Professor Edgardo Menendez
Sociedad Argentina de Emergencias

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Graduated as Medical Physician in 1987 from Buenos Aires University and he is Professor in Medicine. Emergency Medicine and Internal Medicine Specialist.

At present, he is the Director of Emergency Department and the Director of Emergency Medicine Resident Program at Churruca Hospital affiliated to Buenos Aires University and he is an Associate Physician in Intensive Care Service at Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires.

Currently, he is the Director of Post-graduate School of Emergency Medicine at Buenos Aires University and is the Director of Specialist Career in Emergency Medicine at Emergency Argentine Society (SAE)

He has a very active participation in the SAE as Founder Member, Administrative Secretary (2001-2004). Scientific Secretary (2004-2006) Vice-president (2006-2008). President (2008-2010). Immediate Past President (2010 – 2012).Secretary of International relationship (2012 at present).

He is also Chair of the Scientific Committee of ICEM 2020 in Buenos Aires and is the President of the Latin American Federation of Emergency Medicine (FLAME)


Dr Tajek Hassan
Royal College of Emergency Medicine

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Dr Taj Hassan is a consultant in Emergency Medicine at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and also President of the Royal College of Emergency Medicine (2016 – 2019). He was elected in 2018 to represent Europe on the Board of the International Federation for Emergency Medicine.

He has previously held posts at NHS Improvement as Associate Medical Director for Urgent & Emergency Care, national RCEM Lead for Ambulatory Emergency Care and co-author of the national Directory of Ambulatory Emergency Care, Vice President of the RCEM and was Director of eLearning at the College (2005-2012) leading on the development of the eLearning platform that is now RCEMLearning.

He has led on the development of the new strategy RCEM Vision 2020 which focuses on the key themes of Staffing, Systems & Support. His major interests include EM system design, creating workforce resilience & sustainability and developing leadership skills for emergency physicians.

He chaired the College’s landmark strategy in 2013 – Creating successful, satisfying and sustainable careers in Emergency Medicine. Internationally, he has been involved in running leadership training programmes for the International Federation of EM (IFEM) and was Chair of the IFEM group that developed the position paper on Sustainable working Practices for the Emergency Physician in 2014.

He has also recently led initiatives to help develop Emergency Medicine in his country of birth, Pakistan as well as supporting other countries where the specialty is still evolving.

North America

Dr Brian Holroyd
Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians

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Dr Brian Holroyd is a Professor of Emergency Medicine (EM) at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and is the Senior Medical Director of the Alberta Health Services (AHS) Emergency Strategic Clinical Network. Brian is a practicing emergency physician, working clinically at the University of Alberta Hospital, and lives in Edmonton with his wife, Shauna.

After graduating from the University of Alberta with his MD, Brian completed a Family Medicine residency program at the Royal Alexandra Hospital in Edmonton. His EM residency training was at the UCSF-Fresno Medical Education Program in Fresno, California. Brian was an EM faculty member in the UCSF-Fresno Medical Education Program from 1985 through 1993. In California, Dr Holroyd served as the EMS Medical Director in Fresno, California and as the President of the EMS Medical Directors Association of California. Brian received a Commendation from California Governor Pete Wilson for “Exceptional Efforts in Rendering Emergency Assistance to Individuals Injured” in the Interstate Highway 5 Dust Storm Collisions November 29, 1991.

In 1993, Brian returned to Edmonton as the head of the academic EM program at the University of Alberta. He was the was the founding Chair of the Department of Emergency Medicine (EM) at the University of Alberta and completed his term as Chair in June 2017. From 1993 to 2010, he held the position of Chief of EM at the University of Alberta Hospital, and from 2010 to 2011 he was the Edmonton Zone Clinical Department Head for EM for AHS. He has been the Senior Medical Director of the provincial Emergency Strategic Clinical Network since October 2012.

Dr Holroyd is a graduate of the Physician Executive MBA program at the University of Tennessee – Knoxville. In 2013 he was awarded the Canadian Certified Physician Executive credential. He is a Senior Oral Examiner for the American Board of Emergency Medicine. Dr Holroyd served as a member, Vice-Chair and Chair of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada Specialty Committee for Emergency Medicine between 2004 and 2016. He was a member of the national Collaborative Working Group on the Future of Emergency Medicine in Canada. In December 2017, Brian was awarded the Order of the International Federation for Emergency Medicine (FIFEM), and is the North American Regional Board Representative to the International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM) for 2018-2020. In April 2019 he completed the Oregon Health & Science University Graduate Certificate in Clinical Informatics.

His professional interests include emergency department operations, quality, and administration, health policy, medical education, EMS, cardiac emergencies, medical informatics, and clinical decision support. He has authored multiple publications and has made local and national presentations on topics related to EM operations, pre-hospital care, informatics and quality improvement.


ICEM 2022 Melbourne Australia: Dr John Bonning (ACEM)
ICEM 2023 Amsterdam The Netherlands: Dr Luuk Wansink (NVSHA)


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